Current medications for Parkinson’s disease consist of Sinemet, Levodopa/Carbidopa and dopamine agonist. 


Sinemet (a controlled release form of Levadopa) and their combinations and derivatives suffer from many major disadvantages.


Commonly these agents have poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability and relatively short half-lives. 

Side Effects

Observed side effects accompanying chronic use include motor fluctuations, dysfunctions, per-dose dyskinesia, requirements for frequent dosing, involuntary movements, psychosis, confusion, visual hallucinations, bradykinesia, rigidity, tremors, gastrointestinal and genitourinary dysautonomia, hypotension, and cognitive decline. 


Often in as little as 18 months, patients may develop Levadopa-induced dyskinesia: after 2-5 years most patients develop complex dose-related unpredictable “on-off” fluctuations leading to a progressive decrease in therapeutic efficacy.  

Parkinson's patient with nurse